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The accuracy of different methods for the quantitation of hepatitis C virus in plasma was measured with samples from individuals infected with different genotypes and by using RNA transcripts of predetermined concentrations. Highly reproducible results were observed upon repeat testing of samples by both the original version of the Chiron branched-DNA (bDNA) assay (Quantiplex RNA assay; bDNA-1) and the currently available version (Quantiplex HCV RNA 2.0 assay; bDNA-2). A greater variability was observed in the Roche Monitor assay (correlation coefficient of 0.537, compared with 0.942 and 0.964 for the bDNA-1 and bDNA-2 assays, respectively). Significant differences in the efficiency of detection of genotypes 1, 2, and 3 were observed for the bDNA-1 and Roche Monitor assays, whereas the bDNA-2 assay and nested PCR at limiting dilution were able to quantify genotypes with equal sensitivity. By quantifying RNA transcripts of different genotypes, the sensitivities of the Roche Monitor assay for sequences of the type 2 and type 3 transcripts were estimated to be 11 and 8% of those achieved for genotype 1. When correction factors based upon these results and those from quantitation of circulating viral RNA sequences in samples from blood donors were used, the genotype-specific differences in virus load in samples from blood donors were no longer observed, consistent with previous studies with corrected values from the bDNA-1 assay. These results suggest that many of the previous studies evaluating the effect of genotype and virus load on the response to interferon using methods such as the Roche Monitor assay and other competitive PCR methods require reinterpretation. Differences in efficiency of quantitation should be taken into account in future investigations of the relationship between genotype and virus load.

Citation information in Europe Pubmed Central

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis G virus (HGV or GBV-C) is a newly discovered human flavivirus distantly related to hepatitis C virus (HCV). Little information is available on its natural history or routes of transmission, although it can be transmitted parenterally. We investigated the prevalence of persistent infection of HGV and HCV in patients exposed to non-virus-inactivated pooled blood products associated with transmission of HCV. METHODS: RNA was extracted from the plasma of 112 patients with haemophilia and 57 with hypogammaglobulinaemia, as well as from 64 different batches of archived coagulation-factor concentrates and immunoglobulins. RNA was reverse transcribed and amplified with primers from the 5' non-coding region of HCV and HGV by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Viral RNA was quantified by titration of complementary DNA before amplification. FINDINGS: Among non-renumerated UK blood donors HGV infection (detected by PCR) was more common than HCV infection (four [3.2%] of 125 compared with 137 [0.076%] of 180658 in southeast Scotland). Testing of batches of factor VIII and factor IX concentrates prepared without viral inactivation procedures showed high frequencies of contamination with HGV (16 of 17 factor VIII batches positive; six of six factor IX batches positive), with no difference between renumerated and non-renumerated donors. However, among 95 haemophiliacs who had received non-virus-inactivated concentrates, 13 (14%) were positive for HGV compared with 79 (83%) who were positive for HCV. Two of 37 recipients of long-term immunoglobulin replacement therapy were positive for HGV. Virus inactivation of blood products substantially reduced or eliminated contamination by HGV RNA sequences. INTERPRETATION: Despite the extremely high level of HGV contamination of non-virus-inactivated blood products, their use was not associated with high rates of persistent infection in recipients. The infectivity of HGV in blood products may be lower than that of HCV, or the virus may be less able to establish persistent infection in humans. Whatever the case, the high prevalence of active HGV infection in the general population remains difficult to explain.

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